Getting your micro SD card ready to load Raspbian: easier than you thought

Configuring your own micro SD card in order to install Raspbian on a Raspberry Pi is not so hard. Some of the instructions out there are a bit dated and make it out to be harder than it really is.

The details
For instance this site has some extra steps you don’t need:

I’d stick with the simplest possible approach, which turns out to be this set of instructions:

But all these instructions seem to refer to an IMG file which I don’t even see. The main thing is to download NOOBS (new out-of-box software) from .

Then, get the SD card formatter. But the latest version is 5, not 4, and it looks different from before – there are essentially no options!

SD Card Formatter

So go with Quick Format and it works out OK. Unless your SD card is used. Then choose Overwrite format. That also works but takes a lot longer.

Then when it comes to copying the image file, which makes no sense with NOOBS because the image file is hidden, I think. Just extract all the files form the NOOBs zip file and copy them over to your E: drive, of whatever drive your SD card appears as.

Then follow the instructions on your Ras Pi display.

That’s it! I know because I just did it.

(non-)Reliability of SD Card
For the record, I’m in this situation because my old micro SD card just died. This is after running it continuously for a little over two years. Not very impressive in my book. Also for the record the card came as part of a Cana kit.

Symptoms of SD card failure in my case:

– boot paused, then after 120 seconds spits out some warnings about MMC something or other.
– LED status light solid green

References and related
This is probably the best guide, but I did not find a guide with 100% correct info;

Posted in Raspberry Pi | Tagged | 2 Comments

Compiling curl and openssl on Redhat Linux

I have an ancient Redhat system which I’m not in a position to upgrade. I like to use curl to test web sites, but it’s getting to the point that my ancient version has no SSL versions in common with some secure web sites. I desperately wanted to upgrade curl while leaving the rest of the system as is. Is it even possible? How would you do it? All these things and more are explained in today’s riveting blog post.

The details
Redhat version
I don’t know the proper command so I do this:
$ cat /etc/system-release

ed Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 6.6 (Santiago)

Current curl version
$ ./curl ‐‐version

curl 7.19.7 (x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu) libcurl/7.19.7 NSS/ Basic ECC zlib/1.2.3 libidn/1.18 libssh2/1.4.2

Limited set of SSL/TLS protocols
$ curl ‐help

 -2/--sslv2         Use SSLv2 (SSL)
 -3/--sslv3         Use SSLv3 (SSL)
 -z/--time-cond <time> Transfer based on a time condition
 -1/--tlsv1         Use TLSv1 (SSL)

New version of curl

curl 7.55.1 (x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu) libcurl/7.55.1 OpenSSL/1.1.0f zlib/1.2.3

New SSL options

     --ssl           Try SSL/TLS
     --ssl-allow-beast Allow security flaw to improve interop
     --ssl-no-revoke Disable cert revocation checks (WinSSL)
     --ssl-reqd      Require SSL/TLS
 -2, --sslv2         Use SSLv2
 -3, --sslv3         Use SSLv3
     --tls-max <VERSION> Use TLSv1.0 or greater
     --tlsauthtype <type> TLS authentication type
     --tlspassword   TLS password
     --tlsuser <name> TLS user name
 -1, --tlsv1         Use TLSv1.0 or greater
     --tlsv1.0       Use TLSv1.0
     --tlsv1.1       Use TLSv1.1
     --tlsv1.2       Use TLSv1.2
     --tlsv1.3       Use TLSv1.3

Now that’s an upgrade! How did we get to this point?

Well, I tried to get a curl RPM – seems like the appropriate path for a lazy system administrator, right? Well, not so fast. It’s not hard to find an RPM, but trying to install one showed a lot of missing dependencies, as in this example:
$ sudo rpm ‐i curl‐minimal‐7.55.1‐

warning: Header V4 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID b56a8bac: NOKEY
error: Failed dependencies: is needed by is needed by is needed by
        libcurl(x86-64) >= is needed by is needed by
        curl conflicts with

So I looked at the libcurl RPM, but it had its own set of dependencies. Pretty soon it looks like a full-time job to get this thing compiled!

I found the instructions mentioned in the reference, but they didn’t work for me exactly like that. Besides, i don’t have a working git program. So here’s what I did.

Compiling openssl

I downloaded the latest openssl, 1.1.0f, from , untar it, go into the openssl-1.1.0f directory, and then:

$ ./config ‐Wl,‐‐enable‐new‐dtags ‐‐prefix=/usr/local/ssl ‐‐openssldir=/usr/local/ssl
$ make depend
$ make
$ sudo make install

So far so good.

Compiling zlib
For zlib I was lazy and mostly followed the other guy’s commands. Went something like this:
$ lib=zlib-1.2.11
$ wget$lib.tar.gz
$ tar xzvf $lib.tar.gz
$ mv $lib zlib
$ cd zlib
$ ./configure
$ make
$ cd ..
$ CD=$(pwd)

No problems there…

Compiling curl
curl was tricky and when I followed the guy’s instructions I got the very problem he sought to avoid.

vtls/openssl.c: In function ‘Curl_ossl_seed’:
vtls/openssl.c:276: error: implicit declaration of function ‘RAND_egd’
make[2]: *** [libcurl_la-openssl.lo] Error 1
make[2]: Leaving directory `/usr/local/src/curl/curl-7.55.1/lib'
make[1]: *** [all] Error 2
make[1]: Leaving directory `/usr/local/src/curl/curl-7.55.1/lib'
make: *** [all-recursive] Error 1

I looked at the source and decided that what might help is to add a hint where the openssl stuff could be found.

Backing up a bit, I got the source from I chose the file curl-7.55.1.tar.gz. Untar it, go into the curl-7.55.1 directory,
$ ./buildconf
$ PKG_CONFIG_PATH=/usr/local/ssl/lib/pkgconfig LIBS=”‐ldl”

and then – here is the single most important point in the whole blog – configure it thusly:

$ ./configure ‐‐with‐zlib=$CD/zlib ‐‐disable‐shared ‐‐with‐ssl=/usr/local/ssl

So my insight was to add the ‐‐with‐ssl=/usr/local/ssl to the configure command.

Then of course you make it:

$ make

and maybe even install it:

$ make install

This put curl into /usr/local/bin. I actually made a sym link and made this the default version with this kludge (the following commands were run as root):

$ cd /usr/bin; mv curl{,.orig}; ln ‐s /usr/local/bin/curl

That’s it! That worked and produced a working, modern curl.

By the way it mentions TLS1.3, but when you try to use it:

$ curl ‐i ‐k ‐‐tlsv1.3

curl: (4) OpenSSL was built without TLS 1.3 support

It’s a no go. But at least TLS1.2 works just fine in this version.

One other thing – put shared libraries in a common area
I copied my compiled curl from Redhat to a SLES 11 SP 3 system. It didn’t quite run. Only thing is, it was missing the openssl libraries. So I guess it’s also important to copy over

to /usr/lib64 from /usr/local/lib64.

Once I did that, it worked like a charm!

We show how to compile the latest version of openssl and curl on an older Redhat 6.x OS. The motivation for doing so was to remain compatible with web sites which are already or soon dropping their support for TLS 1.0. With the compiled version curl and openssl supports TLS 1.2 which should keep it useful for a long while.

References and related
I closely followed the instructions in this stackoverflow post:
openssl source:
curl sources:
Here’s a web site that only supports TLS 1.2 which shows the problem: You can see for yourself on

Posted in Linux, SLES, Web Site Technologies | Tagged , , , | 1 Comment

Reverse upper and lower case letters

I am a look-at-the-keyboard typist! I can’t count the number of times I’ve begun an email with CAPs lock on, and found a nice correspondence looking like this:


Tired of the re-typing I researched how to quickly repair this, at least for those with a linux command prompt at their disposal.

The details
I added this to my .aliases file:

# reverse upper/lower case
reverse () { tr 'A-Za-z' 'a-zA-Z'; }

Now when I make this mistake I put the text into my clipboard, even if it is multi-line, and fix it like this:

$ echo 'hI aNDRES,


Hi Andres,
I re-created the script.

After the single quote I pasted in my clipboard text and closed that out with another single quote.

Alternative for those uncertain about Linux aliases
Alternatively, right on the command line you would just run

$ echo 'hI aNDRES,

i RE-CREATED THE SCRIPT.'|tr 'A-Za-z' 'a-zA-Z'

We developed an alias expression to make exchanging upper and lower case in a character string fast and easy, if you just remember a few things and have access to a Linux command prompt.

Posted in Admin, Linux | Tagged | Leave a comment

F5 BigIP irule: serving a dynamic proxy PAC file

A large organization needed to have considerable flexibility in serving out its proxy PAC file to web browsers. The legacy approach – perl script on web servers – was replaced by a TCL script I developed which runs on one of their F5 load balancers. In this post I lay out the requirements and how I tackled an unfamiliar language, TCL, to come up with an efficient and elegant solution.
Even if you have no interest in PAC files, if you are developing an irule you’ll probably scratch your head figuring out the oddities of TCL programming. This post may help in that case too.

The irule

# - DrJ 8/3/17
set cip [IP::client_addr]
set debug 0
# supply an X-DRJ-PAC, e.g., w/ curl, to debug: curl -H 'X-DRJ-PAC:'
if {[HTTP::header exists "X-DRJ-PAC"]} {
# overwrite client ip from header value for debugging purposes
  log local0. "DEBUG enabled. Original ip: $cip"
  set cip [HTTP::header value "X-DRJ-PAC"]
  set debug 1
  log local0. "DEBUG. overwritten ip: $cip"
# security precaution: don't accept any old uri
if { ! ([HTTP::uri] starts_with "/proxy.pac" || [HTTP::uri] starts_with "/proxy/proxy.cgi") } {
  log local0. "uri: [HTTP::uri], drop section. cip: $cip"
} else {
if {[HTTP::uri] ends_with "cgi"} {
  set LDAPSUFFIX "-ldap"
# determine which central location to use
if { [class match $cip equals PAC-subnet-list] } {
# If client IP is in the datagroup, send user to appropriate location
    set LOCATION [class lookup $cip PAC-subnet-list]
    if {$debug} {log local0. "DEBUG. match list: LOCATION: $LOCATION"}
} elseif {  $cip ends_with "0" || $cip ends_with "1" || $cip ends_with "4" || $cip ends_with "5" } {
# client IP was not amongst the subnets, use matching of last digit of last octet to set the NJ proxy (01)
    set LOCATION "01"
    if {$debug} {log local0. "DEBUG. match last digit prefers NJ : LOCATION: $LOCATION"}
} else {
# set LA proxy (02) as the default choice
    set LOCATION "02"
    if {$debug} {log local0. "DEBUG. neither match list nor match digit matched: LOCATION: $LOCATION"}
HTTP::respond 200 content "
function FindProxyForURL(url, host)
// o365 and other enterprise sites handled by dedicated proxy...
var cesiteslist = \"*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*;*\";
var cesites = cesiteslist.split(\";\");
for (var i = 0; i < cesites.length; ++i){
  if (shExpMatch(host, cesites\[i\])) {
    return \"PROXY http-ceproxy-$\" ;
// client IP: $cip.
// Direct connections to local domain
if (dnsDomainIs(host, \"\") ||
           dnsDomainIs(host, \"\") ||
           dnsDomainIs(host, \"\") ||
           dnsDomainIs(host, \"\") ||
           dnsDomainIs(host, \"\") ||
           dnsDomainIs(host, \"localdomain\") ||
           dnsDomainIs(host, \"\") ||
           dnsDomainIs(host, \".local\") ||
           shExpMatch(host, \"10.*\") ||
           shExpMatch(host, \"192.168.*\") ||
           shExpMatch(host, \"172.16.*\") ||
        ) {
           return \"DIRECT\";
           return \"PROXY http-proxy-$LOCATION$\" ;
" \
"Content-Type" "application/x-ns-proxy-autoconfig" \
"Expires" "[clock format [expr ([clock seconds]+7200)] -format "%a, %d %h %Y %T GMT" -gmt true]"

I know general programming concepts but before starting on this project, not how to realize my ideas in F5’s version of TCL. So I broke all the tasks into little pieces and demonstrated that I had mastered each one. I describe in this blog post all that I leanred.

How to use the browser’s IP in an iRule
If you’ve ever written an iRule you’ve probably used the section that starts with when HTTP_REQUEST. But that is not where you pick up the web browser’s IP. For that you go to a different section, when CLIENT_ACCEPTED. Then you throw it into a variable cip like this:
set cip [IP::client_addr]
And you can subsequently refer back to $cip in the when HTTP_REQUEST section.

How to send HTML (or Javascript) body content

It’s also not clear you can use an iRule by itself to send either HTML or Javascript in this case. After all until this point I’ve always had a back-end load balancer for that purpose. But in fact you don’t need a back-end web server at all. The secret is this line:

HTTP::respond 200 content "
function FindProxyForURL(url, host)

So with this command you set the HTTP response status (200 is an OK) as well as send the body.

Variable interpolation in the body

If the body begins with ” it will do variable interpolation (that’s what we Perl programmers call it, anyway, where your variables like $cip get turned into their value before being delivered to the user). You can also begin the body with a {, but what follows that is a string literal which means no variable interpolation.

The bad thing about the ” character is that if your body contains the ” character, or a [ or ], you have to escape each and every one. And mine does – a lot of them in fact.

But if you use { you don’t have to escape characters, even $, but you also don’t have a way to say “these bits are variables, interpolate them.” So if your string is dynamic you pretty mcuh have to use “.

Defeat scanners

This irule will be the resource for a VS (virtual server) which effectively acts like a web server. So dumb enterprise scanners will probably come across it and scan for vulnerabilities, whether it makes sense or not. A common thing is for these scanners to scan with random URIs that some web servers are vulnerable to. My first implementation had this VS respond to any URI with the PAC file! I don’t think that’s desirable. Just my gut feeling. We’re expecting to be called by one of two different names. Hence this logic:

if { ! ([HTTP::uri] starts_with "/proxy.pac" || [HTTP::uri] starts_with "/proxy/proxy.cgi") } {
  (send PAC file)

The original match operator was equals, but I found that some rogue program actually appends ?Type=WMT to the normal PAC URL! How annoying. That rogue application, by the way, seems to be Windows Media Player. You can kind of see where they were goinog with this, for Windows Media PLayer you might want to present a different set of proxies, I suppose.

Match IP against a list of subnets and pull out value
Some background. Company has two proxies with identical names except one ends in 01, the other in 02. 01 and 02 are in different locales. So we created a data group of type address: PAC-subnet-list. The idea is you put in a subnet, e.g., and a proxy value, either “01” or “02”. This TCL line checks if the client IP matches one of the subnets we’ve entered into the datagroup:

if { [class match $cip equals PAC-subnet-list] } {

Then this tcl line is used to match the client IP against one of those subnets and retrieve the value and store it into variable LOCATION:

set LOCATION [class lookup $cip PAC-subnet-list]

The reason for the datagroup is to have subnets with LAN-speed connection to one of the proxies use that proxy.

Something weird
Now something weird happens. For clients within a subnet that doesn’t match our list, we more-or-less distribute their use of both proxies equally. So at a remote site, users with IPs ending in 0, 1, 4, or 5 use proxy 01:

elseif {  $cip ends_with "0" || $cip ends_with "1" || $cip ends_with "4" || $cip ends_with "5" } {

and everyone else uses proxy 02. So users can be sitting right next to each other, each using a proxy at a different location.

Why didn’t we use a regular expression, besides the fact that we don’t know the syntax 😉 ? You read about regular expressions in the F5 Devcentral web site and the first thing it says is don’t use them! Use something else like start_with, ends_with, … I guess the alternatives will be more efficient.

Further complexity: different proxies if called by different name
Some specialized desktops are configured to use a PAC file which ends in /proxy/proxy.cgi. This PAC file hands out different proxies which do LDAP authentication, as opposed to NTLM/IWA authentication.. Hence the use of the variable LDAPSUFFIX. The rest of the logic is the same however.

Debugging help
I like this part – where it helps you debug the thing. Because you want to know what it’s really doing and that can be pretty hard to find out, right? You could run a trace but that’s not fun. So I create this way to do debugging.

if {[HTTP::header exists "X-DRJ-PAC"]} {
# overwrite client ip from header value for debugging purposes
  log local0. "DEBUG enabled. Original ip: $cip"
  set cip [HTTP::header value "X-DRJ-PAC"]
  set debug 1
  log local0. "DEBUG. overwritten ip: $cip"

It checks for a custom HTTP request header, X-DRJ-PAC. You can call it with that header, from anywhere, and for the value put the client iP you wish to test, e.g., That will overwrite the client IP varibale, cip, set the debug variable, and add some log lines which get nicely printed out into your /var/log/ltm file. So your ltm file may log info about your script’s goings-on like this:

Aug  8 14:06:48 f5drj1 info tmm[17767]: Rule /Common/PAC-irule <HTTP_REQUEST>: DEBUG enabled. Original ip:
Aug  8 14:06:48 f5drj1 info tmm[17767]: Rule /Common/PAC-irule <HTTP_REQUEST>: DEBUG. overwritten ip:
Aug  8 14:06:48 f5drj1 info tmm[17767]: Rule /Common/PAC-irule <HTTP_REQUEST>: DEBUG. match last digit prefers NJ : LOCATION: 01

And with curl it is not hard at all to send this custom header as I mention in the comments:

$ curl ‐H ‘X-DRJ-PAC:’

Expires header
We add an expires header so that the PAC file is good for two hours (7200 seconds). I don’t think it does much good but it seems like the right thing to do. Don’t ask me, I just stole the whole line from f5devcentral.

A PAC file should have the MIME type application/x-ns-proxy-autoconfig. So we set that explicit MIME type with

"Content-Type" "application/x-ns-proxy-autoconfig"

The “\” at the end of some lines is a line continuation character.

They basically need this to run several hundred times per second. Occasionally PAC file requests “go crazy.” Will it? This part I don’t know. It has yet to be battle-tested. But it is production tested. It’s been in production for over a week. The virtual server consumes 0% of the load balancer’s CPU, which is great. And for the record, the traffic is 0.17% of total traffic from the proxy server, so very modest. So at this point I believe it will survive a usage storm much better than my apache web servers did.

Why bother?
After I did all this work someone pointed out that this all could have been done within the Javascript of the PAC file itself! I hadn’t really thought that through. But we agreed that doesn’t feel right and may force the browser to do more evaluation than what we want. But maybe it would have executed once and the results cached somehow?? It’s hard to see how since each encountered web site could have potentially a different proxy or none at all so an evaluation should be done each time. So we always try to pass out a minimal PAC file for that reason.

Why not use Bluecoat native PAC handling ability?
Bluecoat proxySG is great at handing out a single, fixed PAC file. It’s not so good at handing out different PAC files, and I felt it was just too much work to force it to do so.

References and related
F5’s DevCentral site is invaluable and the place where I learned virtually everything that went into the irule shown above.
Excessive calls to PAC file.

Posted in Web Site Technologies | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

curl showing its age with SSL error

I’ve used curl as a debugging tool for a long time. But time moves on and my testing system didn’t. So now for the first time I saw an error that is produced by this situation, and I will explain it.

The details

The error

$ curl ‐i ‐k

curl: (35) error:1407742E:SSL routines:SSL23_GET_SERVER_HELLO:tlsv1 alert protocol version

$ curl ‐help

 -2/--sslv2         Use SSLv2 (SSL)
 -3/--sslv3         Use SSLv3 (SSL)
 -1/--tlsv1         Use TLSv1 (SSL)

Compare this to a server which I’ve kept up-to-date with openssl and curl:

 -2/--sslv2         Use SSLv2 (SSL)
 -3/--sslv3         Use SSLv3 (SSL)
 -1/--tlsv1         Use => TLSv1 (SSL)
    --tlsv1.0       Use TLSv1.0 (SSL)
    --tlsv1.1       Use TLSv1.1 (SSL)
    --tlsv1.2       Use TLSv1.2 (SSL)

On this server I can fetch the home page with curl.

So it appears the older system does not have a compatible version of TLS. To confirm this use SSLLABS. We see this:

SSLLabs evaluation of

Sure enough, only TLS 1.2 is supported by the server, and my poor old curl doesn’t have that! Too bad for me, but it shows it’s time to upgrade.

Another problem site is another vexing site. On a curl version which supposedly supports tls 1.2 I get this error:
$ curl ‐‐tlsv1.2 ‐‐verbose ‐k

* About to connect() to port 443 (#0)
*   Trying connected
* Connected to ( port 443 (#0)
* Initializing NSS with certpath: sql:/etc/pki/nssdb
* warning: ignoring value of ssl.verifyhost
* NSS error -12286
* Closing connection #0
* SSL connect error
curl: (35) SSL connect error

This is with curl version 7.19.7 on my CentOS 6.8 system.

This same site works fine on my compiled version of curl with the latest openssl, version 7.55.1. I guess the system-supplied curl is missing support for some cipher suites?

A TLS version error is explained, as well as the way it came about.

References and related
I eventually came up with the solution: compile my own updated version of curl! I describe how I did it in this blog post.

Posted in Linux, Web Site Technologies | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

Adding a swap file in Amazon AWS for CentOS

I was running a new daemon on my server, factomd, to experiment with digital currency. It’s an old m1.small instance with only 1.7 GB of memory. The first few times I ran it it would 70000 or so blocks, I would let it run overnight, and then it would run out of memory and crash. My admin skills are a little rusty and dated but I eventually realized that adding swap space to my server could help.

The details
I’ve been running this server for five years and never bothered to create a swap area, as it turns out. My CentOS version is, I think, version 6.0, but it’s hard to tell at this point. Anyway, this command shows the lack of an active swap space:

$ sudo swapon ‐s

Filename                                Type            Size    Used    Priority

What to do?
Amazon has introduced SSD storage and that is recommended for high I/O demands. That makes sense to me to use for swap, which is basically an extension of your memory. It’s also inexpensive in small volumes. I decided to create a 2 GB swap file – roughly the same size as the machine’s physical memory. So I bought a gp2 – general purpose – SSD volume of 2 GB. It’s only $0.20/month!

Where did it go?
After attaching it to my instance, I got what is apparently a one-time message saying what device it would appear as on my instance – /dev/sdg. I was a little nervous – justifiably as it turns out – that I would not see it from CentOS. I tried to mount it – no go. Then I did Internet research and found these two informative commands:


xvdj    disk  100G ext4   /mnt/vol
xvde    disk    6G
`-xvde1 part    6G ext4   /
xvde3   disk  896M swap
xvdk    disk    2G


$ sudo fdisk ‐l

Disk /dev/xvdj: 107.4 GB, 107374182400 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 13054 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/xvde: 6442 MB, 6442450944 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 783 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xaae7682d
    Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/xvde1   *           1         783     6289416   83  Linux
Disk /dev/xvde3: 939 MB, 939524096 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 114 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/xvdk: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes
22 heads, 16 sectors/track, 11915 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 352 * 512 = 180224 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x83d4c8ed

Turns out I had a swap file all along but had never activated it! Further, both these commands show that the new volume is appearing as xvdk, not xvdg. Go figure. I guess I had an xvdj volume and it took the next available letter. The mount command also showed me which of the above volumes was in use so I could see which had been added.

Then I used fdisk to create a swap space on it:

$ fdisk /dev/xvdk

Command (m for help): c
DOS Compatibility flag is not set
Command (m for help): u
Changing display/entry units to sectors
Command (m for help): n
Command action
   e   extended
   p   primary partition (1-4)
Partition number (1-4): 1
First sector (2048-4194303, default 2048):
Using default value 2048
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (2048-4194303, default 4194303):
Using default value 4194303
Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

$ ls /dev/xvdk*

/dev/xvdk  /dev/xvdk1

$ sudo mkswap /dev/xvdk1

Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 2096124 KiB
no label, UUID=0d782596-03e6-48fd-a0fa-2d0e3174f727

$ sudo swapon /dev/xvdk1
The previous command activated our new swap file. To show that we run this command:
$ sudo swapon ‐s

Filename                                Type            Size    Used    Priority
/dev/xvdk1                              partition       2096120 0       -1

Finally to make this swap partition persist after a reboot I added this line to /etc/fstab:

/dev/xvdk1      swap            swap    defaults        0 0

Did it help?
Why yes it did! Now I am using over 900 Mb of swap space, so it was needed pretty badly in fact:

$ sudo swapon ‐s

Filename                                Type            Size    Used    Priority
/dev/xvdk1                              partition       2096120 945552  -1

. And my original motivation – keeping factomd from crashing – was achieved as well. Perhaps it wasn’t so important to use an SSD volume. Mostly the i/o per second was well below 100. But I did have the satisfaction of seeing this burst to 1000, a figure I never could have hit with a traditional drive.

Monitoring i/o
These blockchain verifiers can be killers in terms of resource consumption on little servers like mine. The best tool for analyzing what is going on is iostat:

$ iostat ‐xz 10

Linux 2.6.32-131.17.1.el6.x86_64 (ip-10-185-21-116)     05/01/17        _x86_64_        (1 CPU)
avg-cpu:  %user   %nice %system %iowait  %steal   %idle
           0.92    0.00    0.17    0.24    0.85   97.83
Device:         rrqm/s   wrqm/s     r/s     w/s   rsec/s   wsec/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz   await r_await w_await  svctm  %util
xvdj              0.00     0.45    0.22    0.35     6.90     6.41    23.60     0.01   11.87    8.33   14.05   1.43   0.08
xvde              0.00     0.02    0.02    0.57     0.55     4.70     8.93     0.01   15.32    6.62   15.64   2.84   0.17
xvdep3            0.00     0.00    0.00    0.00     0.00     0.00     8.73     0.00    1.95    1.95    0.00   1.94   0.00
xvdk              0.00     0.01    0.02    0.01     0.19     0.16    11.35     0.00    3.23    0.92   10.75   0.19   0.00
avg-cpu:  %user   %nice %system %iowait  %steal   %idle
           3.65    0.00    6.44   83.93    1.42    4.56
Device:         rrqm/s   wrqm/s     r/s     w/s   rsec/s   wsec/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz   await r_await w_await  svctm  %util
xvdj              0.00     1.71  232.42    2.11  3440.68    30.54    14.80     0.43    1.84    1.80    6.95   1.72  40.38
xvde              0.00     0.00   74.59    3.65  3773.45    29.17    48.61     0.31    3.99    3.36   16.91   0.99   7.77
xvdk              5.47   414.93  606.78  230.37  4898.01  5162.39    12.02     1.89    2.26    0.88    5.89   0.18  14.89
avg-cpu:  %user   %nice %system %iowait  %steal   %idle
           2.63    0.00    4.19   89.55    1.23    2.40
Device:         rrqm/s   wrqm/s     r/s     w/s   rsec/s   wsec/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz   await r_await w_await  svctm  %util
xvdj              0.00     0.00  374.08    0.50  5435.98     4.02    14.52     0.84    2.25    2.25    4.33   1.32  49.32
xvde              0.00     0.00    3.52    0.28   185.03     2.23    49.29     0.01    1.66    1.41    4.80   0.72   0.27
xvdk              1.79    99.72  521.96  108.88  4189.94  1668.83     9.29     0.76    1.21    0.72    3.53   0.14   8.95
avg-cpu:  %user   %nice %system %iowait  %steal   %idle
           8.05    0.00    7.10   72.87    8.46    3.52
Device:         rrqm/s   wrqm/s     r/s     w/s   rsec/s   wsec/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz   await r_await w_await  svctm  %util
xvdj              0.00     0.00  338.02    8.25  6812.99    66.04    19.87     0.94    2.72    2.71    3.18   1.44  49.84
xvde              0.00     0.00   52.17    1.76  2317.73    14.07    43.24     0.15    2.72    2.43   11.23   0.67   3.63
xvdk              9.20   381.12 1180.58  256.16  9518.27  5098.24    10.17     1.95    1.36    0.78    4.04   0.14  20.65

Always mentally discard the first set of numbers when iostat starts up. It needs to initialize its counters from that reading. But this is chock full of information. The cpu time spent waiting for i/o is too high: 70 – 90 % and a lot of that can be blamed on xvdj (%util column for device xvdj). The way I see it if your i/o were instantaneous this number would drop to 0 and our cpu could be doing other more productive things, hence it shows it is a bottleneck 60% of the time. This also shows my swap, xvdk, being sometimes heavily used and not being too much a bottleneck (20% util).

Then of course there is top, which just confirms that factomd is the resource hog:

$ top

top - 11:45:12 up 1246 days, 14:49,  3 users,  load average: 1.55, 1.73, 1.67
Tasks: 108 total,   1 running, 107 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
Cpu(s): 10.6%us,  1.7%sy,  0.0%ni,  4.6%id, 82.3%wa,  0.0%hi,  0.2%si,  0.6%st
Mem:   1695600k total,  1682160k used,    13440k free,     1400k buffers
Swap:  2096120k total,  1003088k used,  1093032k free,    45348k cached
29702 john      20   0 2956m 1.3g 3984 S 21.4 77.9 490:35.59 factomd

Type of cpu
Just for the record here’s the type of cpu you get with an m1 small instance:

$ cat /proc/cpuinfo

processor       : 0
vendor_id       : GenuineIntel
cpu family      : 6
model           : 45
model name      : Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2650 0 @ 2.00GHz
stepping        : 7
cpu MHz         : 1799.999
cache size      : 20480 KB
fpu             : yes
fpu_exception   : yes
cpuid level     : 13
wp              : yes
flags           : fpu de tsc msr pae cx8 cmov pat clflush mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht syscall nx lm constant_tsc up rep_good aperfmperf unfair_spinl
ock pni pclmulqdq ssse3 cx16 sse4_1 sse4_2 x2apic popcnt aes hypervisor lahf_lm arat epb xsaveopt pln pts
bogomips        : 3599.99
clflush size    : 64
cache_alignment : 64
address sizes   : 46 bits physical, 48 bits virtual
power management:

So that’s a single 2 GHz cpu.

We showed how to economically add swap to a CentOS image on Amazon AWS. We showed factomd successfully running on this small instance and we showed linux commands that can be used to monitor resource consumption. Knowing what I know now – that factomd is i/o limited – in addition to creating a swap space I probably would have put its files onto its own SSD drive, which is their recommendation anyway.

References and related
I followed this post for the swap partition creation steps:

Posted in Admin, CentOS, Digital Currency, Linux | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

Automating guest wireless access for monitoring purposes with Raspberry Pi

I decided to monitor guest wireless access to the Internet using a Raspberry Pi. By that I mean a basic, binary, is it working now or not response. The back end is a Cisco wireless LAN Controller (WLC). Like most such systems there is no WiFi password, but your connection is extremely limited until you authenticate to the WLC login page in a browser. Further, this particular system is configured to only permit usage for up to four hours, after which another authentication is required to continue. The system is pretty reliable overall, but there are lots of pieces involved and I decided it would be nice to be the first to know if it isn’t working. And it’d be nice to put one of my spare Raspberry Pi’s to work in this semi-official capacity.

The details
Let’s cut to the chase. This is what my crontab file looks like:

# added for drj4guest WiFi testing - DrJ 4/26/17
# this line should keep us authenticating...
* * * * * curl -d `cat /home/pi/data` > /dev/null 2>&1
# and this is what we actually touch, where we have a separate monitor looking for it...every 2 minutes
*/2 * * * * curl`perl -e 'print time;'` > /dev/null 2>&1

For this to work I need accurate time on the Raspberry Pi. By default it was in the wrong timezone – UTC instead of EDT – and it had anyway drifted by quite a few seconds. I describe how to fix this all up in this post.

Let’s break this down. The WiFi is known as drj4guest, hence some of the naming conventions you see.

Here is the contents of the file data in /home/pi:


So I meticulously reverse engineered all the fields the login form sends over and figured out what it is doing.

In the data file I put my assigned WiFi login username, john (replace it with yours) and my password, which also needs to be replaced with an appropriate value for your situation.

Then I decided to run an attempted authentication every one minute, while running the query to my web server every two minutes. That is what the */2 field does in my crontab. That way I will always have authenticated first, even when my four hours has run out.

I like that this also tests the authentication that has been set up, as this could also be the cause of a failure.

Meanwhile my web server log gets entries like this one every two minutes: - - [26/Apr/2017:15:12:02 -0400] "GET /raspberrypidrj4guest?1493233922 HTTP/1.1" 404 219 "-" "curl/7.26.0"

On the webserver
On the webserver being accessed by the Ras Pi I have this Perl script:

# check if Raspberry Pi on the DrJ guest WiFi is phoning home
# - DrJ 4/26/17
# to test good to error transition,
# call with a very small maxDiff, such as 0!
use Getopt::Std;
getopts('m:d'); # maximum allowed time difference
$maxDiff = $opt_m;
$DEBUG = 1 if $opt_d;
unless (defined($maxDiff)) {
$monitorName = 'Raspberry Pi phone home';
# access line looks like:
# - - [02/Feb/2013:22:00:02 -0500] "GET /raspberrypidrj4guest?136456789 HTTP/1.1" 200 455 "-" "curl/7.26.0"
$magicString = "raspberrypidrj4guest";
$accessLog = "/var/log/apache202/access.log";
# pick up timestamp in access file
$piTime = `grep $magicString $accessLog|tail -1|cut -d\? -f2|cut -d' ' -f1`;
$curTime = time();
$date = `date`;
# your PID file is somewhere else. It tells us when Apache was started.
# you could comment out these next lines just to get started with the program
$PID = "/var/run/";
($atime,$mtime,$ctime) = (stat($PID))[8,9,10];
$diff = $curTime - $piTime;
if ($curTime - $ctime < $maxDiff) {
  print "Apache hasn't been running long enough yet to look for something in the log file. Maybe next time\n";
print "magicString, accessLog, piTime, curTime, diff: $magicString, $accessLog, $piTime, $curTime, $diff\n" if $DEBUG;
print "accessLog stat. atime, mtime, ctime: $atime,$mtime,$ctime\n" if $DEBUG;
print "Freshness: $diff s\n";
sub usage {
  print "usage: $0 -m <maxDiff (seconds)> [-d (debug)]\n";

It’s designed to be run by SiteScope as a script monitor. You would run it by hand like this:

> ./ ‐m 300

Freshness: 35 s

If that Freshness time grows too large then the Ras Pi hasn’t been phoning home and you – presumably – have a problem somewhere. /var/log/apache202 happens to be where I have my apache access file on that system.

We showed how to set up a Raspberry Pi to monitor Guest WiFi access on a Cisco Wireless LAN Controller, even though the accounts have to re-authenticated every four hours.

References and related
In the consumer space I do something closely related. I use a Ras Pi at home to monitor whether my Internet connection at home is working. The same phone home concept is used.

Posted in Apache, Raspberry Pi | Tagged , | Leave a comment

WAN load-balancing routers

I got an offer for $20/month broadband access from Centurylink. It got me to thinking, could I somehow use that as a backup connection to my current cable ISP? How would that work? Could I use a Raspberry Pi as a WAN load-balancing router?

The details
Well I’m not sure about using Raspberry Pi. It’s not so simple.

But I just wanted to mention there are solutions out there in the marketplace to this very problem. They’re not that easy to find, hence this article. They’re mostly aimed at small businesses where Internet connectivity is very important, like an Internet cafe.

This Cisco dual WAN router for $157 would do the trick:

Or for about the same price, this Linksys Dual WAN router:

Want to go consumer grade and save money? This TP-Link model is only about $85:

But it’s ports are only 100 mbps, which is kind of surprising in this day and age.

We have identified commercial solutions to the question: can I use two ISPs at home to provide high availability and load-balancing. I’m not yet sure about a Raspberry Pi solution.

Posted in Consumer Tech, Network Technologies, Raspberry Pi | 2 Comments

Google Authenticator – not tough to self-host

I wanted to learn a bit more about digital currencies. I’ll certainly be posting about them in the future. The best way to get some is to open an account with coinbase. But for security reasons – and I am all for securing things as digital currency thefts are notorious – they require two-factor authentication. The least secure method is to have an SMS code sent to your phone.

Well, my phone is a work phone that i use for light personal use. I’ve never owned a personal cell phone. So I’m not even sure my number will be portable if I retire or am severed from the company that supplies the phone. It would be just like me to forget all about it years from now when I’m facing that situation.

They said a more secure method is Google Authenticator. That sounds a bit daunting and perhaps tied to Google? Upon investigation it turns out that neither of those statements is true.

The details

Turns out the Google Authenticator is really an implementation of open standards based on a couple RFCs, RFC 6238 and RFC 4226. So there are other available implementations besides Google’s.

I used this implementation. It works fine for me once I understood how it works!

How gauth works
The main thing to understand – and the author doesn’t really explain it – is that the secrets are stored locally on the browser. I didn’t look but it must be in a cookie. So from the same desktop, different browsers you’ll see one sees your added account and the other does not. No secrets are stored on the server so the web server only passively contains the HTML and Javascript files.

So in my opinion you ought to make a secure copy of the secret so it doesn’t vanish when you clear your browser cookies, or your computer crashes, or whatever.

It’s a TOTP: time-dependent one-time password. I am personally familiar and comfortable with the concept having been a long-time RSA token user, back to the days when it was Security Dynamics! So my account cannot be compromised by sharing a one-time code as I do in the screen shot below!

What it looks like

gauth running at

Note the time remaining on the right side. These one-time passwords only last for 30 seconds and then new ones will be displayed.

Keep up your time
Since these codes are time-dependent, it is actually important that your computer be synced to an Internet time source. I hadn’t really messed with that on my Windows 10 system and when I checked the time I found it off by seven seconds which is way too much in my opinion. Being off by a couple minutes is probably fatal. I was syncing to a time source about every five days, which is far too infrequent in my opinion.

Too lazy or unable to host your own?
You can use the one the author hosts: Of course that’s putting your trust in the author so I don’t recommend using that.

How to host it
You basically just download the zip file form the git repository and unzip it somewhere onto your web server. In my case I am keeping the location a secret but it doesn’t really matter as there is nothing really there on the server to hide.

Until now I have wanted two-factor authentication but have hesitated due to my incorrect notion that this would actually tie me down to Google’s Ecosystem. Today I found a simple, independent (of Google) implementation that works with Coinbase. I hope to expand my use of 2FA to my banking apps, WordPress and perhaps other areas now that I am comfortable with it.

References and related
A “simple” implementation of Google Authenticator which can be self-hosted:
Wikipedia article on Google Authenticator: It’s very helpful.

Posted in Security, Web Site Technologies | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

Obscure curl error explained – partially

Are you, like me, vexed by this curl error:

curl: (51) SSL peer certificate or SSH remote key was not OK


More details
I have many Linux systems from which to test. But I can only produce this error on some of them. It’s rather strange. I know most of the conditions which create this problem, but not all of them.

As you will see elsewhere on the Internet the error is in general produced by a DNS name/URL mismatch. The funny thing is that I always use the -k switch when running curl. This particular error occurred on some systems even with the -k switch! Now trhat’s noteworthy.

Circumstances which lead to the error

hostname in url does not match name in the certificate, e.g.,

curl -i -k

For me I only see the error on an older SLES 11 SP2 system. But I’m not sure how significant that is.

Additional debug info can be gleaned by adding the -v switch.

Circumstances which will not produce this error

If the URL hostname and the name on the certificate match, all is good.
If the URL uses an IP rather than a hostname all is good.
Perhaps certain implementations of curl and/or openssl will never produce this error as long as the -k switch is used??

The curl error curl: (51) SSL peer certificate or SSH remote key was not OK has been slightly better explained. It’s generally a hostname/certificate name mismatch and it only occurs on some curl versions.

Posted in Network Technologies | Tagged | Leave a comment