I did not experience this problem but it happened to a friend of mine – more than once. I’m not sure what he’s doing during installation of the OS to cause this but I know the solution.
Also there is some really misguided information out there on the Internet. Pure ignorance talking. There’s some accurate discussion as well. By re-posting correct information I hope to increase the average correct treatment. I have nothing original to say per se.
The problem is that you can”t log in to your Raspberry Pi via ssh. See if the ssh daemon is running:
$ sudo service ssh status
sshd is running.
Probably it is and you see the response above.
Try to log in locally:
$ ssh localhost
If you get something like this:
Read from socket failed: Connection reset by peer
then you have the problem which can be fixed by this procedure below.
$ sudo dpkg-reconfigure openssh-server
Or more generally:
$ sudo rm /etc/ssh/ssh_host_* && sudo dpkg-reconfigure openssh-server
There must be some way to screw up the Raspbian installation that produces this particular problem.
And all this is assuming you already had the presence of mind to enable ssh in raspi-config. That of course is a prerequisite.
You should be able to ssh (remote shell access) to your Raspberry Pi. If you cannot the recipe above is probably the needed fix. This discussion is generally valid for all Debian installations, except for the comment about raspi-config!
The correct discussion on this topic in the official Raspberry Pi forum is here.
I’ve published quite a few articles now on Raspberry Pi.
A digital photo frame is described in this article.
Using a Raspberry Pi as a router is described here.