Categories
Linux Network Technologies

Network utilities for Windows

Intro
Today I came across a simple but useful tool which runs on Windows systems that will help determine if a remote host is listening on a particular port. I wanted to share that information.

The details
PortQry is attractive because of its simplicity, plus, it is supported and distributed by Microsoft themselves. The help section reads like this:

PortQry version 2.0
 
Displays the state of TCP and UDP ports
 
 
Command line mode:  portqry -n name_to_query [-options]
Interactive mode:   portqry -i [-n name_to_query] [-options]
Local Mode:         portqry -local | -wpid pid| -wport port [-options]
 
Command line mode:
 
portqry -n name_to_query [-p protocol] [-e || -r || -o endpoint(s)] [-q]
        [-l logfile] [-sp source_port] [-sl] [-cn SNMP community name]
 
Command line mode options explained:
        -n [name_to_query] IP address or name of system to query
        -p [protocol] TCP or UDP or BOTH (default is TCP)
        -e [endpoint] single port to query (valid range: 1-65535)
        -r [end point range] range of ports to query (start:end)
        -o [end point order] range of ports to query in an order (x,y,z)
        -l [logfile] name of text log file to create
        -y overwrites existing text log file without prompting
        -sp [source port] initial source port to use for query
        -sl 'slow link delay' waits longer for UDP replies from remote systems
        -nr by-passes default IP address-to-name resolution
            ignored unless an IP address is specified after -n
        -cn specifies SNMP community name for query
            ignored unless querying an SNMP port
            must be delimited with !
        -q 'quiet' operation runs with no output
           returns 0 if port is listening
           returns 1 if port is not listening
           returns 2 if port is listening or filtered
 
Notes:  PortQry runs on Windows 2000 and later systems
        Defaults: TCP, port 80, no log file, slow link delay off
        Hit Ctrl-c to terminate prematurely
 
examples:
portqry -n myserver.com -e 25
portqry -n 10.0.0.1 -e 53 -p UDP -i
portqry -n host1.dev.reskit.com -r 21:445
portqry -n 10.0.0.1 -o 25,445,1024 -p both -sp 53
portqry -n host2 -cn !my community name! -e 161 -p udp
...

The PortQry “install” consisted of unzipping a ZIP file, so, no install at all, and no special permissions needed, which is a plus in my book.

nmap
Of course there is always nmap. I never really got into it so much, but clearly you can go nuts with it. One advantage is that it is available on linux and MacOS as well. But in my opinion it is a heavy-handed install.

References and related
PortQry

nmap

Some nmap examples I have used.

Categories
Admin Linux Network Technologies

The IT Detetecive Agency: the case of the unreliable FTP

Intro
So one of my power users complains that his FTPs to a particular site fail frequently, but not always. I rolled up my sleeves and set to work. The thing I do best is find the essence of a problem – what is the bare minimum sequence of events that reproduces it. I’m still getting my head around this one and I haven’t cracked the case yet, but I’ve learned about a few obscure packet generation tools.

The details
I may flesh this out later. The essence of the thing is that a packet trace (using tcpdump) shows that randomly no SYN-ACK packet is returned for our SYN packet to the FTP server on port 21. The FTP server resides on the Amazon cloud, but on the West Coast. We are on the East Coast. Not that that matters.

So I learned to reproduce the problem myself with the built-in ftp client. But I wanted even more control.

Packet generation tools
My trajectory went kind of like this:

ftp -> ping -> nmap -> hping3 -> mausezahn (-> scapy)

I had to compile mausezahn but I did manage to get it to work. I guess the developer has passed away. It doesn’t offer complete control over tcp packet generation, but nearly so.

I just discovered scapy. It appears to offer complete control over packet generation, including the tcp options such as mss, but the proof is in the pudding and I haven’t had time to check it out.

See the references fo links to further information about where to find these packages.

Preliminary findings
I began to see that with nmap and hping3 I was getting SYN-ACKs back consistently. What’s the difference between their SYN packets and ftp’s? They don’t use any options whereas my ftp client does.
And that is the essence of the problem. A tcp SYN packet which sets options like SACK, wscale and MSS is not being responded to around 30% of the time. No options set? SYN-ACKs come back 100% of the time. Pings are answered 99 – 100% of the time. mausezahn (mz) allows to set the window size. The window size is irrelevant.

Is it one particular tcp option that is the culprit, or just the fact of using any of them? Unfortunately that’s where you reach the limits of mz. mz only allows you to turn on or off all options. scapy promises to be more granular. So at least with mz by itself I can turn of/off the problem at will. That is getting to the essence of the problem.

Another wrinkle? Only certain source IPs have the problem! I have an identical system using a different ISP and it works all day long.

Conclusion
A lot of work and only modest progress to show for it. I need cooperation of the ftp administrator to do a simultaneous trace. Either the packet never gets to him, or his infrastructure discards it, or he responds but I never see the response. A two-sided trace will narrow down which of these three things is happening.

But I did learn that fine-control packet generation is a bit difficult to come by, which comes as a surprise in this day and age. You have to do some work to get full control over your packets.

I have nos stomach for writing my own C++ code to have total control.

It’s still an open case.

References
nmap.org talks about nmap. nmap is a pretty standard package available for major distributions. But it is not sufficiently configurable.
I’ve written about hping3 before, showing how to compile it.
I used this site for mausezahn source code and documentation.
scapy is well-documented here.

Categories
Admin

Nmap: Swiss Army Knife of network utilities

Intro
I just wanted to put in a plug for nmap. It’s a very useful tool for any network specialist. I show a use case that came up today.

The details
While cleaning up DNS entries I came across a network segment that didn’t seem to have any active network devices, at least not after I cleaned up the old DNS entries for inactive devices.

So I wanted to see if I could tell the networking tech that this subnet is unused and could be allocated for some other purpose.

I remembered using nmap years ago, and that it was a powerful tool for this kind of thing. What I had in mind was to ping every IP on this segment to see if there were any undocumented hosts.

As it turns out I didn’t even have it installed, but it was very easy to get:

On SLES:
$ zypper install nmap

On CentOS:
$ yum install nmap

It doesn’t get easier than that!

A quick review of the man page showed that what I wanted was indeed possible. Here’s the syntax for a systematic PING sweep through a subnet:

$ nmap −sP 10.101.192.0/24

Starting Nmap 4.75 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2012-11-08 10:21 EST
Host 10.101.192.5 appears to be up.
Host 10.101.192.10 appears to be up.
Host 10.101.192.151 appears to be up.
Host 10.101.192.152 appears to be up.
Host 10.101.192.153 appears to be up.
Nmap done: 256 IP addresses (5 hosts up) scanned in 1.28 seconds

Now I know that subnet has rogue or at least undocumented hosts and is not unused!

The original usage for nmap, at least for me, was to fingerprint an unknown host:

$ nmap −A −T4 ossim.drj.com

Interesting ports on ossim.drj.com (10.22.235.19):
Not shown: 996 filtered ports
PORT    STATE  SERVICE  VERSION
22/tcp  open   ssh       (protocol 2.0)
80/tcp  open   http     Apache httpd
|_ HTML title: 302 Found
443/tcp open   ssl/http Apache httpd
|_ HTML title: Site doesn't have a title.
514/tcp closed shell
1 service unrecognized despite returning data. If you know the service/version, please submit the following fingerprint at http://www.insecure.org/cgi-bin/servicefp-submit.cgi :
SF-Port22-TCP:V=4.75%I=7%D=4/25%Time=51793070%P=x86_64-suse-linux-gnu%r(NU
SF:LL,29,"SSH-2\.0-OpenSSH_5\.5p1\x20Debian-6\+squeeze2\r\n");
Device type: WAP|general purpose|PBX
Running (JUST GUESSING) : Linux 2.6.X|2.4.X (93%), Vodavi embedded (85%)
Aggressive OS guesses: OpenWrt 7.09 (Linux 2.6.22) (93%), OpenWrt 0.9 - 7.09 (Linux 2.4.30 - 2.4.34) (92%), Linux 2.6.20.6 (89%), Linux 2.6.21 (Slackware 12.0) (88%), OpenWrt 7.09 (Linux 2.6.17 - 2.6.21) (88%), Linux 2.6.19 - 2.6.21 (88%), Linux 2.6.22 (Fedora 7) (88%), Vodavi XTS-IP PBX (85%), Linux 2.6.22 (85%)
No exact OS matches for host (test conditions non-ideal).
 
TRACEROUTE (using port 21/tcp)
HOP RTT    ADDRESS
1   0.87   10.202...
2   0.38   ...
3   0.57   ...
4   6.10   ...
5   114.64 ...
6   119.79 ...
7   103.43 ossim.drj.com (10.22.235.19)
 
OS and Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at http://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 35.02 seconds

Now that was kind of an unusual example in which nmap wasn’t too sure about the OS. Usually you get a positive ID of some sort. That’s a chatty server and I’m still not sure what it is.

Nmap can be used for nasty things and in an impolite way, network-wise. So be careful to tone it down. Target your hosts and protocols with care. It can guess what OS a host is running, what ports are open, all kinds of amazing stuff.

I checked PING and did not see a built-in capability to do a PING sweep, though it would have been easy enough to script it. That was my backup option.

Once I had to check on a single UDP port being open on port 80 for a webcast client called Kontiki (they call this protocol KDP). No other ports were open, necessitating the -PN switch.

Single UDP port check
$ nmap −PN −sU -p 80 29.239.11.4

Starting Nmap 4.75 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2013-07-23 13:59 EDT
Interesting ports on 29.239.11.4:
PORT   STATE         SERVICE
80/udp open|filtered http
 
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 2.15 seconds

Three TCP ports checked
$ nmap ‐PN ‐sS ‐p 445,28080,28443 12.92.96.37

Results of that scan

Starting Nmap 5.51 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2017-04-13 09:18 EDT
Nmap scan report for 12.92.96.37
Host is up.
PORT      STATE    SERVICE
445/tcp   filtered microsoft-ds
28080/tcp filtered unknown
28443/tcp filtered unknown
 
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 3.06 seconds

filtered” means there were no reply packets to my SYN packets, usually a sign of an intervening firewall dropping packets. I’m not sure why it describes the host as “up” when actually it is down or behind a firewall. A state of closed indicates that a RST packet was received in reply, indicating that the port is closed on the host itself and it wasn’t a firewall that prevented the test from succeeding. the third possible state is open, which of couse means that it replied with a SYN-ACK to that probe on that port.

To fix the source port add a -g to the above command. E.g., some firewalls have trouble with permitting inbound UDP packets from port 53 so to test for that you throw in a -g 53 and try some random high destination port.

I needed to spoof another host’s IP address and send a simple PING (ICMP request) to diagnose what was going wrong with the reply. Here’s how I did that:

$ nmap −PE −e eth0 −S 10.42.48.1 10.1.145.10

But then I realized what I really needed to do to emulate the problem is to send a single TCP SYN packet to port 8081, without the accompanying ICMP probes that nmap is wont to throw in there first. Here’s how I built up that probe:

$ nmap −PN −sS −p 8081 −−max-retries 0 −e eth0 −S 10.42.48.1 10.1.145.10

Check if a web server is running
$ nmap −PN −p T:80,443 drjohnstechtalk.com
This will check both ports 80 and 443. It doesn’t execute any HTTP protocol. It’s just a quick and dirty test.

don’t have nmap but have something like netcat instead? A good tcp port check with netcat is
netcat -vzw5 <host> <port>. Here’s an actual example.

$ netcat ‐vzw5 drjohnstechtalk.com 443

DNS mismatch
drjohnstechtalk.com [50.17.188.196] 443 (https) open

Conclusion
Nmap is a great network tool that every IT network tech should be familiar with.

References and related
A more capable and complicated packet generation tool is scapy. I describe it in this blog post.

A simpler network for Windows (simpler than nmap for Windows) is PortQry. It was created by Microsoft.