Categories
Linux

Install WSL2 for Windows 10 Home Edition: not as easy as they say, but not impossible either, and definitely worth it

Intro

I installed WSL2 on my work laptop a couple weeks ago. It didn’t go terribly smoothly but now that I have it, I love it. I had been using a Cygwin environment, but I fear that is looking a little long in the tooth. WSL2 is fast to start up. But the main contrast is that while Cygwin is an emulator, WSL2 is a true hypervisor so you get a full-fledged linux VM, right on your PC. Of course this was always possible with products like VirtualBox or whatnot, but Microsoft has sort of built in this capability with newer versions of Windows 10, so there’s no mussing with external software any longer.

But at work I have Windows 10 Professional, of course. What about at home where I have Windows 10 Home Edition like most of us? My understanding is that you could not run a hypervisor with Windows 10 Home Edition. And I was probably right, until recently. But now you can. I know because I just managed it tonight.

None of the tutorials out there were exactly right, but they all contained pieces of the truth. So my contribution is to add weight to the correct steps you’ll need to take. Unfortunately I only get to do it once so my notes aren’t the best. Still, I may be able to spare you some pitfalls.

Why you should want WSL2

If you love linux command-line, then I would say this is a must-have.

What doesn’t work

You’ll see suggestions to fire up powershell and simply run

wsl –install

Chances are about 95% that that won’t work if you are reading this article – would that it would be so simple.

Instead, do this

Open a powershell window as administrator. To do that type powershell in the start menu, and look around at all the options. Pick out the one that mentions Run as administrator.

Running Powershell as Administrator

Then enter this command into the PS window.

dism.exe /online /enable-feature /featurename:Microsoft-Windows-Subsystem-Linux /all /norestart

Then this.

dism.exe /online /enable-feature /featurename:VirtualMachinePlatform /all /norestart

Then this.

wsl --set-default-version 2

You need to update your kernel. Download this WSL2 kernel update file and install it: https://wslstorestorage.blob.core.windows.net/wslblob/wsl_update_x64.msi

A reboot at this point is probably a good idea.

Now you need to get yourself a linux distro to install.

There are certain wsl commands you can issue which will helpfully give you the URL to the Debian distro: You put the URL into the browser and it redirects you to the MS Store. But I forget what that is. perhaps wsl -d Debian. But I suppose you can simply go to the MS Store directly and search for Debian and install it.

Enhance your experience with Windows Terminal

One good suggestion out of Windows Central is to use Windows Terminal. At least it looks good. I haven’t had time to try it myself. I normally just fire up a CMD window and type wsl. My Debian starts immediately and I have a satisfactory command-line environment. But working with multiple windows will be nice so I have to check it out.

Just look for Windows Terminal in the MS Store.

Windows Central suggestions

A web site called Windows Central has a pretty good stepwise guide. But their advertising is so obnoxious, I’m afraid to accidentally touch any part of the page for fear of getting sent to one of their many advertisers. Even still it probably happened about five times. So I won’t make the link to them too prominent. And, anyway, their guide is a little oversimplified.

My equipment

I have a four-year old HP Pavilion laptop running Windows 10 2021 H2 if I remember correctly. It has solid state drives so it’s not too slow, and it boots pretty quickly.

BIOS – basically impossible to get into these days

I’m sure people who do this for a living will disagree, but for ordinary people it’s basically impossible to disrupt the boot process to modify the BIOS settings. And you may need to do that. In fact that was the hardest thing of all for me. Pressing F10 or delete or Escape or F2 – and does that mean hold the FN key down first?? No one explains that, and I don’t have patience to watch a YouTube video. But after trying a bunch of combinations and booting a bunch of times, and never getting into the BIOS settings, I was really glad to learn Windows 10 offers an alternate way! And it works…

Access BIOS settings from Windows 10

Very briefly, the steps are:

Windows Settings > Update & Security > Recovery > Restart Now > Advanced Startup -> Restart Now > Reboot > select Troubleshoot > Advanced Options > UEFI Firmware Settings > (BIOS menu) enable virtualization > Save.

To see the details, go to this HP article: How to Enter BIOS Setup on Windows PCs | HP® Tech Takes

Why you may need to alter the BIOS settings

Well, on my laptop my installation of Debian kept failing with this error. Error: 0x80370102 The virtual machine could not be started because a required feature is not installed. I read on a Microsoft site that could be because the ability to run virtual servers was not enabled in the BIOS. And, yes, that turned out to be absolutely true. It was disabled. So I enabled it and bam, the Debian install started asking me for a username and password, and I was running a Debian VM!

To be fleshed out as my time permits…

But, I love my Debian linux. It’s just like Raspberry Pi OS Lite. I just install packages as I need them: python, pip, curl, bind9-dnsutils, ssh, etc.

Operating inbound TCP services

After the initial thrill wears off, you realize you may need practical things that you have on your Raspberry Pi such as an ssh server or a web server. I believe this will be possible. Still working on it. After installing ssh you can fire it up:

$ sudo service ssh start

This post describes some of those service commands which you have under a WSL linux install: [3 Fixes] System Has Not Been Booted With Systemd as Init System (partitionwizard.com)

If you ignore that article you may see this error! System has not been booted with systemd as init system (PID 1). Can’t operate.

Back to your ssh server. Now you can already connect to it from the Windows system itself, e.g., from a CMD window:

C:\Users\me> ssh user@localhost

user is the Debian user you set during initial setup. So, anyway, that works and that’s cool. But you’re still locked out from the outside.

This helpful Microsoft article discusses networking for WSL2. Apparently it is still evolving and so it’s a bit primitive right now: Accessing network applications with WSL | Microsoft Docs

From a CMD Window launched as administrator:

netsh interface portproxy add v4tov4 listenport=22 listenaddress=0.0.0.0 connectport=22 connectaddress=172.22.167.12

But this does not work in my case. Firewall thing, I’m sure. Yes! for me, where I also run Mcafee, I needed to go to their firewall settings > Ports and system services. Then I had to add a service for TCP port 22 – the ssh default port. Then it began to work and my RPi could ssh and sftp to my Debian VM! sftp kind of hanged a bit. Have to see how bad that is.

References and related

That obnoxious Windows Central article I mentioned above with a lot of the WSL2 installation information. It’s a veritable minefield of links to irrelevant stuff, so you’ve been warned: How to install Linux WSL2 on Windows 10 and Windows 11 | Windows Central

WSL2 kernel update.

Seeing Error: 0x80370102? Try Troubleshooting Windows Subsystem for Linux | Microsoft Docs A whole host of other WSL2 errors are addressed in this article as well.

This article purports to be for servers, but I think it’s applicable to PCs as well. It gets pretty technical. System requirements for Hyper-V on Windows Server | Microsoft Docs

About starting system services such as the ssh daemon: [3 Fixes] System Has Not Been Booted With Systemd as Init System (partitionwizard.com)

A good overview of WSL2 networking: Accessing network applications with WSL | Microsoft Docs

How to Enter BIOS Setup on Windows PCs | HP® Tech Takes

Categories
Admin CentOS Security

How to Set up a Secure sftp-only Service

Intro
Updated Jan, 2015.

Usually I post a document because I think I have something to add. This time I found a link that covers the topic better than I could. I just wanted to have it covered here. What if you want to offer an sftp-only jailed account? Can you do that? How do you do it?

The Answer
Well, it used to be all here: http://blog.swiftbyte.com/linux/allowing-sftp-access-while-chrooting-the-user-and-denying-shell-access/. But that link is no longer valid.

I tried it, appropriately modified for CentOS and it worked perfectly. A few notes. Presumably you will already have ssh installed. Who can imagine a server without it? So there’s typically no need to install openssh-server.

I was leery mucking with subsystem sftp. What if it prevented me from doing sftp to my own account and having full access like I’m used to? Turns out it does no harm in that regard.

Very minor point. His documentation might be good for Ubuntu. To restart the ssh daemon in CentOS/Fedora, I recommend a sudo service sshd restart. Do you wonder if that will knock you out of your own ssh session? I did. It does not. Not sure why not!

These groupadd/useradd/usermod functions are “cute.” I’m old school and used to editing the darn files by hand (/etc/passwd, /etc/group). I suppose it’s safer to use the cute functions – less chance a typo could render your server inoperable (yup, done that).

Let’s call my sftp-only user is joerg.

I did the chown root:root thing, but initially the files weren’t accessible to the joerg user. The permissions were 700 on the home directory, now owned by root. That produces this error when you try to sftp:

$ sftp joerg@localhost
sftp> dir

Couldn't get handle: Permission denied

That’s no good, so I liberalized the permissions:

$ sudo chmod go+rx /home/joerg

My /etc/passwd line for this user looks like this:

joerg:x:1004:901:Joerg, etherip author:/home/joerg:/bin/false

So note the unusual shell, /bin/false. That’s the key to locking things down.

In /etc/group I have this;

joerg:x:1004:

If you want to add the entries by hand to passwd and group then if I recall correctly you run a pwconv to generate an appropriate entry for it in /etc/shadow, and a sudo passwd joerg to set up a desired password.

Does it work? Yeah, it really does.

$ sftp joerg@localhost
Connecting to localhost…
sftponlyuser@localhost’s password:
sftp> pwd
Remote working directory: /
sftp> cd ..
sftp> pwd
Remote working directory: /
sftp> cd /etc
Couldn’t canonicalise: No such file or directory
sftp> ls -l
[shows files in /home/joerg]

Moreover, ssh really is shut out:

$ ssh joerg@localhost
joerg@localhost’s password:

This hangs and never returns with a prompt!

Cool, huh?

Locking out this same account
Now suppose you only intended joerg to temporarily have access and you want to lock the account out without actually removing it. This can be done with:

$ sudo passwd -l joerg

This puts an invalid character in that account’s shadow file entry.

Conclusion
We have an easy prescription to make a jailed sftp-only account that we tested and found really works. Regular accounts were not affected. The base article on which I embellished is now kaput so I’ve added a few more details to make up for that.

Categories
Linux

An SSH Terminal App for the HP Touchpad

October, 2016 Update
Needless to say, the HP Touchpad never caught on and mine is collecting dust.

What I just got is the new 8″ Amazon Fire HD Tablet. You can get a free good-quality ssh client for it called serverauditor. The keyboard emulation (linux CLI needs all those unusual keys pretty badly). The battery life is genuinely good – better than the Touchpad. It’s $89.

I’ll keep the blog post below online for historical purposes.

Updated Version
My previous post got out-of-date so rapidly that I have to start this topic all over! DO NOT follow my previous advice.

The Bluetooth Keyboard – It’s Worth It
My Bluetooth keyboard came in. It’s really awesome. I advise to get it if you want to treat your Touchpad (the cognoscenti prefer TP) like a Netbook from time-to-time, namely, by having the ability to type rapidly and comfortably. Get the HP one made for the Touchpad because:
– it’s small like you’d expect as a companion for a small tablet computer, yet the keys are full size
– it has some really convenient shortcut keys so you’re not spending too much time shifting your hand from keyboard to screen, namely:
— volume controls
— screen on/off
— even a key that shows your cards
– plus some keys that do stuff that’s harder with just a TP
— Ctrl (control) key, yeah!
— arrow keys
–mute key
–screen brightness/dimmer keys
–plus other keys I haven’t tested yet
– and the : and / keys are primary keys like they should be

So far I’m missing a
-Home/End key and if I ever get my terminal working again
– an ESC (escape) key

All-in-all I’d say the Bluetooth keyboard is an obviously well-engineered product – a perfect pairing for the TP.

It’s $45 at Amazon. And yes, I am writing this blog entry on my new keyboard!

I also bought an off-brand display stand. By Mivizu. It’s better than NOT having one, but it’s kind of flimsy and awkward. In no way a fun and beautifully engineered companion to the TP, unlike the IPad case that everyone likes to play with.

What About that SSH Terminal?
I probably messed things up with Preware alpha/beta software. They have released an Xterm, but I arrived at it from various previous upgrades and either Xecutah or the XServer is not working for me. The XServer does not launch a new card like it should. See below.

I will probably have to Web Dr my device (start from a factory install state), which they warn you should be prepared to do when using test software. Live and learn. I have not had time to do that yet, but I wanted to delete my old post and get the new facts out here before others went down the wrong path.

So, briefly, an ssh, bash, xterm to your underlying Linux on your TP are all available from the webos-internals.org site.

Sep 29th I saw an upgrade for Xecutah, Servers and xterm – to v 0.9.3. I did the upgrade and, to my surprise, I am back in business again! The xterm launches once again and so I do not have to Web Dr my Touchpad.

I thought I owed it to the community to experiment, so I decided to change root’s shell to bash! That’s right, the shell is that old /bin/sh by default. Once you’ve installed it, bash appears in /opt/bin/bash. Well…that worked too. I now have a comfortable shell that launches for me when I fire up my xterm, or xterms. Of course I brought over my .bashrc file – using sftp of course – with its familiar prompt definition and convenience aliases such as the universal “ll” for ls -l. To make really sure I hadn’t blown up my Touchpad, I rebooted. Yes, reboot from your shell really does work to reboot your TP! And yes, it came back with flying colors.

Esc key in the xterm for real Keyboard Users
I don’t think the HP keyboard has an escape key, not that I can find. So you’re in a bit of a bind if you use it for your xterm during a vi editing session. What you can do is momentarily bring up the virtual keyboard by hitting the, um, keyboard key. Xecutah now comes with instructions on how to generate the escape key on the virtual keyboard (hold t, choose right-most character, then “[” as your next character) which work. Then, when you’ve got your Esc, which you don’t need to often anyways, hit that keyboard key again to recommended using your comfy real keyboard.

So I am a happier camper once again. I even contributed to webos-internals. You should, too, if you think they’re providing a valued service as I do.

To be continued.